The ELASSTIC concept is about the communication between these three main technology groups:
- Building Information
- Simulation models
- Sensor information
A fourth technology called ‘Multi Criteria Analyses’ (MCA) is providing the end-user the interface to evaluate safety and security of the building design.
The concept is best described with an example. Let’s focus on the case of a fire in a building.
In case of a fire in a building, the sensors from the Building Management System (BMS) pick it up. The BMS probably responds with the classic sprinkler system. A notification of the fire is also send to the evacuation simulation. The location of the fire, smoke and maybe intensity are available data at this moment in the process.
With advances in building management systems the number of people and their location might also be available as data. The evacuation simulation calculates the most effective evacuation route for the people in the building. To do this, it needs to calculate the spread of the fire so it also triggers the fire simulation. For these simulations information about the building is needed. This data comes from the (static) BIM. In case, parts of the building are destroyed, even this new information is available in BIM and have to be read by the BMS. When the BIM data shows installations with high risk of explosions, the ‘explosion simulation’ can be triggered. The structural integrity of the building might also be evaluated due to the effects of the fire and/or explosions.
The most effective evacuation route, due to the recent state of the building, is send to the building management system. By using signs the people in the building can be evacuated via the safest route in the most effective and efficient way. When people don’t use the suggested route, sensors (like cameras) can pick up this deviation and start a new simulation. Resulting in a recalculated optimum evacuation route that is send to the building management system.
Other information from sensors can also influence the process flow. For example when walls break down due to fire; the BIM data set gets updated and this new dataset is used as the base for evacuation simulation. In this case new evacuation routes may come available. Or when parts of the building won’t provide structural safety anymore (found by a combination of sensors in load bearing columns and beams) this part might be prioritized in the evacuation (and the BIM data updated).
To get this theoretical idea into practice, the ELASSTIC project was started. During this project we tried to implement the concept with open source and closed tools, simulation models and open data standards. The research methodology was that of applied research.
During the project the concept of ‘BIM Bots‘ was tested with the following setup:
The workflow between BIMserver and the simulation models is ‘event driven’. Every simulation model can subscribe to events on the used BIMserver in which they have interest. When this event occurs the BIMserver sends a notification of the event to the subscribed simulation service(s). The simulation services most probably run on a separate (remote) server. This server can then perform actions on (using a token as login) and send the results back to the BIMserver, or to any other service. This way a chain of event driven services can be triggered on an event (like ‘new revision’).
The ELASSTIC BIM concept proved to have great potential to the industry. Due to the automation of simulation models (with or without supporting services) the designer is provided with direct feedback of the performance of the building during the (early) design phase.
To optimize the usability of this concept additional features are introduced like model-checking, pre-processing of data (called ‘supporting services’ in this report), post processing of data (in this project to facilitate the MCA tool), advanced query/filter functions, etc. Some results of Elasstic are already published in previous BIMserver releases. Others will be in the upcoming 2.0 release that has a new API and interface to support the ‘BIM Bots’ concept that was tested in Elasstic.
The final “REPORT ON IMPROVED USAGE OF BIM TECHNOLOGY” is written by projectpartners TNO, ARCADIS, SIEMENS, and SCHUESSLER-PLAN. Since the status of the report is ‘public’ we are proud te be able to offer it on our website.